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Knowledge Graphs

Knowledge Graphs (KGs) are an Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology that everyone of us has used: when we ask a query in a search engine like Google, we do not only get links to websites as results, but also information from Google's Knowledge Graph, typically displayed as a box next to the results. Beyond Google, Knowledge Graphs are currently used in an overwhelming majority of larger companies, across all domains spanning finance, energy, medicine, etc.

Since the popularisation of the term, Knowledge Graphs have become a staple both in academia and industry. Yet, effectively constructing and utilising Knowledge Graphs requires an understanding of the underlying data management and artificial intelligence principles, methods and techniques. This course gives a thorough introduction to this topic.


This course normally runs once a year.


Course dates

21st November 2022Oxford University Department of Computer Science - Held in the Department03 places remaining.
20th November 2023Oxford University Department of Computer Science - Held in the Department17 places remaining.


At the end of the course, you will be able to design and apply Knowledge Graphs (KGs) to solve a range of problems in modern information systems. In particular, you will be able to make educated assessments of using logic- or machine learning (ML)-based representations of KGs, and apply them in practice. You will be able to design scalable systems that utilise KGs, and gain practical experience in developing Knowledge Graph-based applications.


The course will cover three main areas:

Representations of Knowledge Graphs
(logic- and machine learning (ML)-based)
Systems for Knowledge Graphs
(scalablility and reasoning)
Applications of Knowledge Graphs
(real-world enterprise artificial intelligence)


Remark: A fully detailed, graphical, overview can be found at

In more detail, the course will cover the following topic areas. In terms of representations we will cover Knowledge Graph Embeddings, a widely applied, large family of machine learning (ML) models, Logical Knowledge in KGs, a highly expressive, diverse family of logical models, and Graph Neural Networks, which are ML-methods that use the KG structure as the basis of a neural network. We will also take a glimpse into Data Models for Knowledge Graphs.

In terms of systems we will cover Architectures, i.e., the big picture of buiding IT architectures for KGs, and its close companion Scalable Reasoning methods for making use of the knowledge in the KG. We will also discuss KG Creation, including methods such as Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), and KG Evolution, i.e., how to update, correct, and complete a KG.

In terms of applications we will cover the diverse Real-World Applications, such as banking software, medical informatics, supply chains, etc., and take a particular focus on Financial KGs with concrete applications in finance and economics. We will also take a glimpse at Services that can be provided provide based on KGs, as well as Connections between KGs, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) and Data Science.


Some familiarity with databases would be useful; Database Design would be an ideal preparation.