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An Ontology−Based Deep Learning Approach for Triple Classification with Out−of−Knowledge−Base Entities

Elvira Amador−Domı́nguez‚ Emilio Serrano‚ Daniel Manrique‚ Patrick Hohenecker and Thomas Lukasiewicz


Knowledge graphs (KGs) are one of the most common frameworks for knowledge representation. However, they suffer from a severe scalability problem that hinders their usage. KG embedding aims to provide a solution to this issue. Nonetheless, general approaches are incapable of representing and reasoning about information not previously contained in the graph. This paper proposes to leverage semantic and ontological information for a significant benefit of knowledge graph completion, focusing on triple classification. The goal of this task is to determine whether a given fact holds. Furthermore, this paper also considers the classification of facts that include entities that have not been seen during training, denoted out-of-knowledge-base or OOKB entities. An incremental method is presented, composed of six stages. Although the proposal can be applied to any KG embedding model, this work focuses on its application for semantic matching models, such as ComplEx and DistMult. Compared to other approaches, our proposal is model-agnostic, computationally inexpensive, and does not require retraining. The results show that triple classification accuracy scales up to 15% with the proposed approach, as well as accelerating the convergence of the model to its optimal solution. Furthermore, facts containing OOKB entities can be classified with a reasonable accuracy.

Information Sciences