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PAC−Net: Multi−Pathway FPN with Position Attention Guided Connections and Vertex Distance IoU for 3D Medical Image Detection

Zhenghua Xu‚ Tianrun Li‚ Yunxin Liu‚ Yuefu Zhan‚ Junyang Chen and Thomas Lukasiewicz


Automatic medical image detection aims to utilize artificial intelligence techniques to detect lesions in medical images accurately and efficiently, which is one of the most important tasks in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, and can be embedded into portable imaging devices for intelligent Point of Care (PoC) Diagnostics. The Feature Pyramid Networks (FPN) based models are widely used deep-learning-based solutions for automatic medical image detection. However, FPN-based medical lesion detection models have two shortcomings: the object position offset problem and the degradation problem of IoU-based loss. Therefore, in this work, we propose a novel FPN-based backbone model, i.e., Multi-Pathway FPN with Position Attention Guided Connections and Vertex Distance IoU (abbreviated as PAC-Net), to replace vanilla FPN for more accurate lesion detection, where two innovative improvements, a position-attention guided connection (PAC) module and Vertex Distance IoU (VDIoU) loss, are proposed to address the above-mentioned shortcomings of vanilla FPN, respectively. Extensive experiments are conducted on a public medical image detection dataset, i.e., Deeplesion, and the results showed that (i) PAC-Net outperforms all state-of-the-art FPN-based depth models in both evaluation metrics of lesion detection on the DeepLesion dataset, (ii) the proposed PAC module and VDIoU loss are both effective and important for PAC-Net to achieve a superior performance in automatic medical image detection tasks, and (iii) the proposed VDIoU loss converges more quickly than the existing IoU-based losses, making PAC-Net an accurate and also highly efficient 3D medical image detection model

Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology