EFPN: Effective medical image detection using feature pyramid fusion enhancement
Zhenghua Xu‚ Xudong Zhang‚ Hexiang Zhang‚ Yunxin Liu‚ Yuefu Zhan and Thomas Lukasiewicz
Feature pyramid networks (FPNs) are widely used in the existing deep detection models to help them utilize multi-scale features. However, there exist two multi-scale feature fusion problems for the FPN-based deep detection models in medical image detection tasks: insufficient multi-scale feature fusion and the same importance for multi-scale features. Therefore, in this work, we propose a new enhanced backbone model, EFPNs, to overcome these problems and help the existing FPN-based detection models to achieve much better medical image detection performances. We first introduce an additional top-down pyramid to help the detection networks fuse deeper multi-scale information; then, a scale enhancement module is developed to use different sizes of kernels to generate more diverse multi-scale features. Finally, we propose a feature fusion attention module to estimate and assign different importance weights to features with different depths and scales. Extensive experiments are conducted on two public lesion detection datasets for different medical image modalities (X-ray and MRI). On the mAP and mR evaluation metrics, EFPN-based Faster R-CNNs improved 1.55% and 4.3% on the PenD (X-ray) dataset, and 2.74% and 3.1% on the BraTs (MRI) dataset, respectively. EFPN-based Faster R-CNNs achieve much better performances than the state-of-the-art baselines in medical image detection tasks. The proposed three improvements are all essential and effective for EFPNs to achieve superior performances; and besides Faster R-CNNs, EFPNs can be easily applied to other deep models to significantly enhance their performances in medical image detection tasks.