Well−founded Semantics for Description Logic Programs in the Semantic Web
Thomas Eiter‚ Giovambattista Ianni‚ Thomas Lukasiewicz and Roman Schindlauer
The realization of the Semantic Web vision, in which computational logic has a prominent role, has stimulated a lot of research on combining rules and ontologies, which are formulated in different formalisms. In particular, combining logic programming with the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which is a standard based on description logics, emerged as an important issue for linking the Rules and Ontology Layers of the Semantic Web. Nonmonotonic description logic programs (dl-programs) were introduced for such a combination, in which a pair (L,P) of a description logic knowledge base L and a set of rules P with negation as failure is given a model-based semantics that generalizes the answer set semantics of logic programs. In this article, we reconsider dl-programs and present a well-founded semantics for them as an analog for the other main semantics of logic programs. It generalizes the canonical definition of the well-founded semantics based on unfounded sets, and, as we show, lifts many of the well-known properties from ordinary logic programs to dl-programs. Among these properties, our semantics amounts to a partial model approximating the answer set semantics, which yields for positive and stratified dl-programs, a total model coinciding with the answer set semantics; it has polynomial data complexity provided the access to the description logic knowledge base is polynomial; under suitable restrictions, it has lower complexity and even first-order rewritability is achievable. The results add to previous evidence that dl-programs are a versatile and robust combination approach, which moreover is implementable using legacy engines.