Imperfect Evolutionary Systems
Graham Kendall and Yan Su
In this paper, we propose a change from a perfect paradigm to an imperfect paradigm in evolving intelligent systems. An imperfect evolutionary system (IES) is introduced as a new approach in an attempt to solve the problem of an intelligent system adapting to new challenges from its imperfect environment, with an emphasis on the incompleteness and continuity of intelligence. We define an IES as a system where intelligent individuals optimize their own utility, with the available resources, while adapting themselves to the new challenges from an evolving and imperfect environment. An individual and social learning paradigm (ISP) is presented as a general framework for developing IESs. A practical implementation of the ISP framework, an imperfect evolutionary market, is described. Through experimentation, we demonstrate the absorption of new information from an imperfect environment by artificial stock traders and the dissemination of new knowledge within an imperfect evolutionary market. Parameter sensitivity of the ISP framework is also studied by employing different levels of individual and social learning.