# Many−Valued First−Order Logics with Probabilistic Semantics

*Thomas Lukasiewicz*

### Abstract

We present n-valued first-order logics with a purely probabilistic semantics. We then introduce a new probabilistic semantics of n-valued first-order logics that lies between the purely probabilistic semantics and the truth-functional semantics of the n-valued Lukasiewicz logics L_n. Within this semantics, closed formulas of classical first-order logics that are logically equivalent in the classical sense also have the same truth value under all n-valued interpretations. Moreover, this semantics is shown to have interesting computational properties. More precisely, n-valued logical consequence in disjunctive logic programs with n-valued disjunctive facts can be reduced to classical logical consequence in n-1 layers of classical disjunctive logic programs. Moreover, we show that n-valued logic programs have a model and a fixpoint semantics that are very similar to those of classical logic programs. Finally, we show that some important deduction problems in n-valued logic programs have the same computational complexity like their classical counterparts.