Ca2+ Channel Re−localization to Plasma−Membrane Microdomains Strengthens Activation of Ca2+−Dependent Nuclear Gene Expression
Krishna Samanta‚ Pulak Kar‚ Gary R. Mirams and Anant B. Parekh
In polarized cells or cells with complex geometry, clustering of plasma-membrane (PM) ion channels is an effective mechanism for eliciting spatially restricted signals. However, channel clustering is also seen in cells with relatively simple topology, suggesting it fulfills a more fundamental role in cell biology than simply orchestrating compartmentalized responses. Here, we have compared the ability of store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels confined to PM microdomains with a similar number of dispersed CRAC channels to activate transcription factors, which subsequently increase nuclear gene expression. For similar levels of channel activity, we find that channel confinement is considerably more effective in stimulating gene expression. Our results identify a long-range signaling advantage to the tight evolutionary conservation of channel clustering and reveal that CRAC channel aggregation increases the strength, fidelity, and reliability of the general process of excitation-transcription coupling.