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Towards a proof theory of analogical reasoning

Matthias Baaz ( University of Technology, Vienna )

In this lecture we compare three types of analogies based on generalizations and their instantiations:
1. Generalization w.r.t. invariant parts of proofs (e.g., graphs of rule applications etc.)
2. Generalization w.r.t. an underlying meaning. (Here proofs and calculations are considered as trees of formal expressions. We analyze the well-known calculation attributed to Euler demonstrating that the 5th Fermat number is compound, i.e. that Fermat's claim is false, that all Fermat numbers are primes)
3. Generalization w.r.t. the premises of a proof. (This type of analogy is especially important for juridical reasoning.)

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